Definitions[ edit ] This higher-level cognition was given the label metacognition by American developmental psychologist John H.
According to Putz et al,p. Language is viewed as an ability that connects the language specific practices and mechanisms. Most the practices and methods involved in the comprehension of language are common cognitive practices. In this paper, we shall look into the ability of grownups to learn a second language.
There are five cognitive processes linked to the acquisition of second language L2.
These include language transfer, transfer of training, strategies of learning, communication strategies and the generalization of rules Putz et al,p. The above principles are based on how the brain operates, with regards to memory and attention, according to neural connection, therefore helping in the comprehension of our mental mechanisms.
Memory Memory nodules are the structure blocks of mental structures. In order for one to form a concept, our mind has to recognize stimuli, thereby creating a mental structure.
The subsequent information is recorded, and since our mind relates the incoming stimuli with earlier information, there is a probability that it will stimulate the same or connected memory nodules.
In case of fresh information, the mind will a diverse set of nodes, that pass on processing signs to either improve the stimulations of the nodes they amplify or improve the foundations of those nerves or repress the activation of other nodes Putz et al,p. In other terms, once memory nodules have undergone stimulation, two methods regulate their level of activation; suppression and enhancement Monsell,p.
Their enhancement occurs when the information that they carry is critical for additional structure fabrication and suppressed when the information they carry is no longer as essential.
Both suppression and improvement assist in referral of previously named concepts, like repeated names, or pronouns.
Thus, when we apply language, we try to classify the environment around us by conveying a word to a notion.
Correspondingly, when one listens to a word, he or she is likely to develop a personal model of realism consecutively to acquire its mental picture.
Things are classified in languages in an equivalent universal approach, which is based on correspondence. Attention According to Monsell, p.
The two key aspects that are related to the deployment of attention are, the duration of look and shift rate. Short looks and shifts that are more frequent are linked to either very quick response in the neural response, or better skills at dividing attention.
High shift rates are related to a more active comparison of targets.
An individual tends to slow down when they come across these cues, and this means that the individual begins laying out foundation for a new substructure memory. If one is not attentive, the stimulus in the receptive field restrains the neural reaction, equally restraining one another.
Attention to one of these stimuli hinders this repression impact, strongly amplifying the neural response to the target and strongly reducing the neural response to the distracter Monsell,p.
Control of cognitive processes: Cognitive processing in second language acquisition:At the outermost layer, critical thinking is a judgment about the reliability of a cognitive process or faculty, hence, the degree of trust that should be placed in its outputs.
A critical dialogue is only one of various cognitive or social processes that might be utilized alone or in combination to generate beliefs and decisions.
A Tradecraft Primer: Structured Analytic Techniques for Improving Intelligence Analysis - Cognitive and Perceptual Biases, Reasoning Processes - Kindle edition by Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading A Tradecraft Primer: Structured Analytic Techniques. study of higher mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, and thinking cognitive science the interdisciplinary field of study of the approach systems and processes that manipulate information.
A Resource for Teachers, Clinicians, Parents, and Students by the Brain Injury Association of New York State. The brain is a remarkable and complex structure responsible for thinking skills. Several parts of the brain work together in a sophisticated manner to integrate information and develop thoughts.
Cognitive restructuring (CR) is a psychotherapeutic process of learning to identify and dispute irrational or maladaptive thoughts known as cognitive distortions, such as all-or-nothing thinking (splitting), magical thinking, over-generalization, magnification, and emotional reasoning, which are commonly associated with many mental health disorders.
CR employs many strategies, such as Socratic.