Enjoy the Famous Daily Doing what comes naturally Lions and wolves communicate well enough to hunt as a group. Bees can tell each other where the best pollen is. For almost the whole of human history, from at least 3 million years ago, mankind has lived by carrying out these two basic acitivities of hunting or fishing and gathering edible items of any kind from fruit to insects.
The Native People of North America Great Basin Culture Area Reading Assignment Resources Introduction The Great Basin is a land of great environmental diversity and dramatic contrasts -- high mountains and arid plains, deep canyons and occasional bountiful lakes -- comprising somesquare miles between the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Rocky Mountains.
It includes all of Nevada and Utah, most of western Colorado, portions of southern Oregon, Idaho, and Wyoming, as well as southeastern California, and portions of northern Arizona and New Mexico.
Elevation is relatively high throughout the Basin: The climate is variable, but in general average summer temperatures are high often over degreeswinters are cold temperatures sometimes falling to 20 degrees below zerolower elevations, evaporative rates are high at lower elevations, and percipitation is low.
In addition, the amount of rainfall varies dramatically from year to year. Thus, in one year a potential plant food source can be anywhere Compare and contrast hunting and fishing two to six times more plentiful than it was last year; or it can be two to six times less plentiful. Vegetation varies widely throughout the Basin.
The lower slopes of the mountain ranges support sagebrush grasslands, while juniper and pinyon woodlands occur at higher elevations, followed, in turn, by forests of scrub oak, ponderosa pine, aspen, spruce and fir. In the low basins of the Mohave Desert of southern California and Nevada, creosote bush and rabbit bush are the dominant plants, while the high deserts are blanketed with saltbush and sagebrush.
Numerous seed-bearing grass species, such as Indian rice grass and wheatgrass, are common in the high desert areas. Much of the Great Basin is a land of roughly parallel north-to-south trending ranges, each range separated from its neighbors by long desert basins.
Since the Great Basin is a province of interior drainage in which the rivers and streams of which there are relatively few and solely dependent on mountain snows rather than rainfall all flow down from the surrounding mountains and into the central depression, many of the desert basins such as Death Valley were, during the last Ice Age, filled to overflowing by snow meltwater.
Many of these Ice Age basins were joined to each other by fish-rich rivers, or linked by green belts of vegetation. And where there is now treeless, arid steppe, woodlands grew and camels, wild horses, and mammoth grazed on open plains and on the fringes of the lakes and great marshes. Then between about 12, and 10, the lakes shrank, many rivers dried up, and the lusher vegetation retreated northward and to higher elevations.
Over the next several thousands of years, the Great Basin became increasingly arid with temperatures rising until about 6, to 5, years ago, when they stabilized and persisted to modern times.
Historic Overview The first Europeans to enter the Great Basin encountered only scattered bands of Indians who roamed the land on foot, maintaining a great deal of flexibility and variability in group size, group stability, degree of sedentary settlement, etc.
And because plant resources fluctuated yearly, grew and matured at different times, the Indians were forced to move regularly from zone to zone. However, while no one plant was abundant enough to support a lot of people at any one place at any one time, many species could be eaten, and the people gathered every bit of vegetation: And if the archaeological record can be trusted, it seems that this way of life was one with deep roots, extending back to the end of the Last Ice age, more than 10, years ago.
The Paleo-Indian Period before about 10, years ago. People have lived in the Great Basin for a very long time. The earliest evidence of occupation has been found along the shorelines of the once extensive system of ancient Ice Age lakes and dates to around 12, years ago.
These earliest people, the Paleo-Indians, were few in number, highly mobile, and left few traces of their passing. But from the little they did leave behind, it appears that although they were contemporary with the Clovis tradition peoples to the east, they did not follow the Clovis big-game hunting subsistence pattern.
Instead, they tended to be more broad and eclectic in their dietary patterns, using a wide range of resources.
The Archaic Period from about 10, years ago to Contact with Europeans. At the end of the Pleistocene, the climate changed from relatively wet and cool to much warmer and drier, leading to the disappearance of most of the lakes and an abandonment of the area by many animal species. People had three choices: We know that the latter option was in place by at least 10, years ago in northwestern Utah and by at least 9, years ago in western Nevada.
Abundant milling equipment dating back to 10, years ago indicates that by then people were beginning to utilize the abundant hard seeds and nuts found throughout the Great Basin. As the climate continued to warm up and most of the lakes and marshes dried up, Basin groups adopted far more complex settlement patterns that had them making use of semi-permanent winter base camps with basic storage facilities -- a pattern that would remain essentially unchanged all the way into the middle of the 19th century.
The Great Basin Archaic is divided into three major time periods: Early - lasted from about 9, to 4, years ago. People continued a general hunting and gathering economy, scheduling their movements across the landscape to coincide with the availability of resources.
In some regions of the Great Basin, such as around the Great Salt Lake in Utah, people made extensive use of dry cave sites.
Such sites remained completely dry until modern times and provide an exceptional record of Archaic life containing, as they do, a wealth of human accumulations: Some caves even contain human burials which allow scientists to "see" what these earliest inhabitants of the Great Basin look like.
For example, from Spirit Cave near Fallon, Nevada, archaeologists recovered a 9, year old human buriala man about 45 years old when he died. Preservation was so exceptional, that the skeleton still had rarely preserved hair and skin.
Also preserved were his rabbit fur robe, two shrouds of woven tule reeds, and well-worn moccasins of three kinds of animal hide, sewn with hemp and sinew, and patched on the soles. A forensic anthropologist's reconstruction of Spirit Cave Man, based upon the recovered skull.
Middle - from about 4, to 1, years ago.The Achievements and Challenges of Zimbabwe Students will compare and contrast the viewpoints of the people involved in the Kariba Dam project. Without access to the river the Tonga people were now dependent on the hunting of wild animals.
However, the government soon passed the Protection of Wildlife Act. Compare and contrast hunting to other conservation practices. Demonstrate appropriate responses to hunting and firearm accidents. Identify means by which hunting and firearms accidents may be prevented.
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Persuasive Essay Ideas Theme. View Full Version on Mobile. Chapter 4. HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES I. Introduction area than hunting and gathering., As figure illustrates, this is a generalization about ticated animals, and the men hunt and fish for protein.
In Oceania, by contrast, pigs are a near-universal element of simple horticulture. In Sub-Sahara Africa, cattle are frequently.
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