Computer networks midterm paper

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Computer networks midterm paper

Security Midterm elections, social media and hacking: What you need to know Hackers and propagandists are a threat to US elections. Here's how the US government and tech giants like Facebook and Twitter are working to stop them from interfering with the vote.

Russian hackers and propagandists who interfered in the US presidential election didn't stop when it was over. They're still trying to influence the voteand now they're being joined by other countries hoping to influence the midterms, according to the US Department of Homeland Security and other agencies.

Two years ago, hackers were caught trying to break into voter registration databases and other election infrastructure in at least 21 states during the race between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton. They also infiltrated email accounts of two major organizations run by the Democratic party, as well as the private emails of members of Clinton's campaign.

And they leaked thousands of emails to WikiLeaks and other websites, as well as members of the press, to sway public opinion and mislead voters into picking one candidate over another.

That was on top of the misinformation campaign by professional internet trolls who created American personas on the most widely used social media sites, including Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, posting false news stories and helping plan real-world protests.

Earlier this year, US special prosecutor Robert Mueller charged members of a Russian spy agency and people involved in running or working at Russia's Internet Research Agency of crimes relating to the alleged campaign. Justice Department indicts 12 Russian cyberspies suspected Most of the hacks that have come to light have either been unsuccessful or limited in their reach.

During a Tennessee primary election for county mayor in May, a hacking approach called a DDoS attack flooded Knox County's website with so much traffic the page crashed.

Computer networks midterm paper

The page went down just as polls closed on election night. A more serious DDoS attack could take down pages with important information, like where your polling place is. What you need to know One of the targets was Missouri Democrat Claire McCaskill, but it's not clear who the other two targets were.

Florida Senator Bill Nelson, also a Democrat, said he'd learned of a breach of voter registration systems in the state -- though officials who run the state's elections disputed that claim.

Securing the voting infrastructure A voting machine at a demonstration in California in Getty Images Hacking experts are trying to make electronic voting machines more secure.

That's good, because the machines are notoriously easy to hack. The events of won extra attention for the vulnerabilities in voting machines and networks used by elections agencies, and those agencies and the federal government have been pushing forward on fixes.

Still, don't get so scared of hacked voting machines that you decide to sit out the electionexperts say. The machines aren't as vulnerable as they sound.

The main thing protecting voting machines from a large-scale attack is that they don't connect to the internet, so most vulnerabilities can only be exploited by hackers who have physical access to the machines. A group of "white hat" hackers tested voting machines for vulnerabilities this summer at the annual Defcon event in Las Vegas.

US officials said they hoped the Defcon hackers would identify even more issues than they did in the previous year's effort. They got what they asked for when the hackers released a report in September. It said the vote-counting machines its experts tested were vulnerable, allowing hackers who breached them to "flip the electoral college.

First, experts say having a paper record of each ballot is key for auditing votes and catching software glitches as well as potential hacks. Second, computer scientists who've been examining the machines for years say the process for updating software and hardware needs to be streamlined, so problems can be addressed faster.

The answer doesn't include blockchainthey say, despite the enthusiasm of the technology's fans. The worst thing that could happen, according to DHS Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen, is an argument after the election over whether the vote was compromise.

The discord is more likely than an actual hack, she said FridayNovember 2. Social media gets serious about trolls Major social media companies have tried to show that they're taking abuse of their platforms seriously. That's meant rooting out organized campaigns run by users who lie about their identities and giving ordinary users more information about the political ads they're seeing.

The company also promised European officials it will block interference in elections there, too. Social media on guard Facebook turns to cybersecurity tools to deal with its troll problem Facebook calls organized troll activity "inauthentic influence campaigns," which try to sway political protests in real life and spread misinformation online.

Google also identified a network of 58 accounts originating from Iran that were running an influence operation on the company's platforms, including its popular YouTube video service. Facebook has imposed requirements for users who manage pages, making them confirm their locations and add extra security to prevent account takeovers.

Other tech firms offer solutions Social media companies aren't the only ones working on ways to crack down on hackers and online fakers.The cable networks gave attention to late-afternoon exit polls that seemed to indicate this year's vote would be a repudiation of Trump.

There were glum reactions on the set at Fox News Channel. Minimum network assumption: As discussed in 12, the datagram is a manifestation of the minimum level of assumptions made about services provided by the network.

It permits a wide variety of networks to connect to the Internet at large. The Associated Press delivers in-depth coverage on today's Big Story including top stories, international, politics, lifestyle, business, entertainment, and more. Although the quiz is closed book, you may bring one handwritten crib sheet on an x 11" or A4 sheet of paper.

Preparing a crib sheet can be a useful study aid, so put some effort into selecting material for it.

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Past exam papers Here are past papers for the Computer Science Tripos and Diploma in Computer Science from onwards. They incorporate any corrections made after the original papers . Mar 15,  · Using paper ballots and audits are two ways that we can quickly bolster our democracy's defenses for our midterm elections.

Post to Facebook Election hacking is going to happen.

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