Contemporary Metaphysics of Causation 1.
The moral sense school reached its fullest development in the works of two Scottish philosophers, Francis Hutcheson — and David Hume — Hutcheson was concerned with showing, against the intuitionists, that moral judgment cannot be based on reason and therefore must be a matter… Early life and works Hume was the younger son of Joseph Humethe modestly circumstanced laird, or lord, of Ninewells, a small estate adjoining the village of Chirnside, about nine miles distant from Berwick-upon-Tweed on the Scottish side of the border.
In his third year his father died. He entered Edinburgh University when he was about 12 years old and left it at 14 or 15, as was then usual. Pressed a little later to study law in the family tradition on both sideshe found it distasteful and instead read voraciously in the wider sphere of letters.
Because of the intensity and excitement of his intellectual discovery, he had a nervous breakdown infrom which it took him a few years to recover.
It is divided into three books: For those reasons his mature condemnation of it was perhaps not entirely misplaced. Book I, nevertheless, has been more read among academic philosophers than any other of his writings.
Returning to England inhe set about publishing the Treatise. Perhaps encouraged by this, he became a candidate for the chair of moral philosophy at Edinburgh in Unsuccessful, Hume left the city, where he had been living sinceand began a period of wandering: Albans as tutor to the mad marquess of Annandale —46 ; a few months as secretary to Gen.
Clair a member of a prominent Scottish familywith whom he saw military action during an abortive expedition to Brittany ; a little tarrying in London and at Ninewells; and then some further months with General St.
Clair on an embassy to the courts of Vienna and Turin — Mature works During his years of wandering Hume was earning the money that he needed to gain leisure for his studies. Some fruits of those studies had already appeared before the end of his travels, viz.
It was in those later works that Hume expressed his mature thought. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is an attempt to define the principles of human knowledge. It poses in logical form significant questions about the nature of reasoning in regard to matters of fact and experience, and it answers them by recourse to the principle of association.
That is to say, the mind does not create any ideas but derives them from impressions. From this Hume develops a theory of linguistic meaning. A word that does not stand directly for an impression has meaning only if it brings before the mind an object that can be gathered from an impression by one of the mental processes just mentioned.
In the second place, there are two approaches to construing meaning: The idea of a plane triangle, for example, entails the equality of its internal angles to two right angles, and the idea of motion entails the ideas of space and time, irrespective of whether there really are such things as triangles and motion.
Only on that level of mere meanings, Hume asserts, is there room for demonstrative knowledge.David Hume and His Thoughts Hume begins his argument by observing that there is “a great variety of taste, as well as of opinions, which prevails the world.”.
David Hume and His Thoughts Hume begins his argument by observing that there is “a great variety of taste, as well as of opinions, which prevails the world.” This diversity is found among people of the same background and culture within the same group and is even more pronounced among “distance nations and remote ages.”.
+ free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. David Hume, who died in his native Edinburgh in , has become something of a hero to academic philosophers. In , he won first place in a large international poll of professors and graduate students who were asked to name the dead thinker with whom they most identified.
The runners-up in this. David Hume’s views on aesthetic theory and the philosophy of art are to be found in his work on moral theory and in several essays. Although there is a tendency to emphasize the two essays devoted to art, “Of the Standard of Taste” and “Of Tragedy,” his views on art and aesthetic judgment are intimately connected to his moral philosophy and .
David Hume (/ h juː m /; born David Home; 7 May NS (26 April OS) – 25 August ) was a Scottish Enlightenment philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.