In contrast to Freud's focus on sexuality, Erikson focused on how peoples' sense of identity develops; how people develop or fail to develop abilities and beliefs about themselves which allow them to become productive, satisfied members of society. Because Erikson's theory combines how people develop beliefs psychologically and mentally with how they learn to exist within a larger community of people, it's called a 'psychosocial' theory.
Someone who looked at personality development in a broader perspective is Erik Erikson. Similar to Freud, unsuccessful, or even partial resolutions bring maladaptation when the person gets too much of aspects that were meant to be supportive of the resolution, such as when a person trusts too much, and, malignancies, constituting the worse of the two, when the person gets mainly too many negative impulses that do not support a positive resolution of the crisis, resulting in, for example trusting no one.
Since Erikson involved later stages in life in his theory he is part of the theorists with a psychodynamic view, and according to Cervone and Pervin the most prominent theorists within this view.
One of the most useful ideas Erikson provided was the epigenetic nature of his stages that contribute to personality development because they offer a framework that is comprehensible when tracing problematic or pathological thought processes or behaviors back.
According to BoereeErikson suggested that the development of identity takes place in predetermined stages that, due to the resolution, or lack thereof, of crises, determine certain personality traits. These biologically predetermined, also known as epigenetic, stages and their individually connected crisis have, additionally to their predetermined order, an individual timing, and both need to be followed to reach optimal development Boeree, While a successful crisis resolution within the timeframe will aid the further development in subsequent stages by establishing certain virtues that can be beneficial throughout the development in later life stages, a lack of resolution in one stage might influence the resolution of subsequent stages negatively, and, therefore, might have an impact on personality development across lifespan as well Boeree, This predetermined framework is useful in two aspects.
Erikson theorized that the infant resolved this stage successfully through reliable and sensitive primary caregivers because if the child can rely Erik eriksons psychosocial developmental theory and them to satisfy its needs, it Erik eriksons psychosocial developmental theory and develop a fundamental trust that the world is predictable, and this trust creates hope and faith that aids in later stage resolution Myers, Insecure attachment during childhood can take two main forms in adulthood, insecure-avoidant and insecure-anxious, in which the person either craves acceptance while fearing rejection anxiety type or feels uncomfortable with close relationships and, therefore, avoids them avoidant type.
Apart from adulthood, however, research has also found that pathological behavior in six-year-old boys could be retrospectively attributed to insecure attachment in eighty percent of the time Lewis et al.
If a psychologist would like to find the root of a problem, of for example, a young adult struggling to form any attachments later in life, or a child showing pathological behavior, then having a framework with predetermined stages and their outcome that everyone goes through in the same order, helps to trace back the root of a problem later in life because there is no loose order, but an order that ties development together into a coherent process that is applicable.
In general, knowing that the root of a problem is an unresolved stage that might have had an influence on subsequent stages can either help to develop a plan to support a person to overcome her issues, or, at the very least aid as an exclusion criterion in a, most likely, more complex therapy approach.
Either way, the epigenetic nature of Erikson personality development stages constitutes one of his most useful ideas because they offer a framework that is comprehensible when tracing problematic or pathological thought processes or behaviors back. Staying with the example of stage one and the researched boys mentioned earlier, one-year-olds having all risk factors associated with insecure attachment and the arising development of pathological thinking patterns or behaviors by the age of six, proved only in forty percent of the cases to be pathological at the age of six Lewis et al.
This finding, in combination with previously mentioned knowledge that even adult relationships can be influenced by early childhood attachment developed through stage one, suggests that in between stages there can be changes, possibly brought on by chance events that are influences from the environment that are not predictable, such as, according to Cervone and Pervin a change in parent attitude, that either fully or partially resolve stages at a later time.
This possibility, Erikson never denied, and even supported by stating that, while the ideal resolution takes place in its epigenetic order, any later stage might positively contribute to the resolution of a previous stage Erikson, ; Knowing about the relationship between a stage crisis, the resolution, and outcome, as well as the influence a resolved or unresolved stage, can have on the next, helps to prevent damage and support optimal development.
Being aware of the peak occurrence in its relationship to the order helps to be aware of the time point where attention is needed to the particular crisis to promote an optimal subsequent development, instead of, for example, focusing on something that has not yet arrived.
It is the quest of an adolescent to find her place in society, a role that also allows contributing to the community Boeree, Upon successfully finding this place and gaining an identity, fidelity will be instilled in this person, but a lack of identity might end in malignant tendency of repudiation, meaning they might be rejecting their role as an adult or, most adversely, a need for an identity, which makes them vulnerable to join groups that tell them who they are, but not necessarily should be which in return can result in becoming psychotic Boeree,which most likely also will have isolating effects on the subsequent stage six, mentioned earlier.
Knowing about the positive resolution of finding the identity in this stage, and being aware of the negative result that awaits otherwise, is a concept that might be very effective in combination with a predetermined order as without the contrast between a healthy and unhealthy person, and the point in time where this crisis takes place a person does not necessarily know which strategies to employ to prevent a negative personality development.
What Erikson did by adding stages beyond adolescence was opening the door to adult personality development, and, therefore, changes later in life. While Freud conceptualized in his psychosexual theory that personality development was finished by adolescence, Erikson opposed this view by adding three more distinct stages that, when comparing it to life seem not only very appropriate but also logical, as people can subsequently also change their personality at later stages in life.
While Boereebased on cultural differences, argues that the epigenetic principle is hard to defend, Erikson himself employed a great deal of attention to a variety of cultural aspects, visited, and even lived in cultures that differed much from his own, to make sure that what he observed in one culture would hold its value in others as well Sharkey, Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development emphasizes the sociocultural determinants of development and presents them as eight stages of psychosocial conflicts (often known as Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development) that all individuals must overcome or resolve successfully in order to adjust well to the environment.
Developmental psychologist Erik H. Erikson () was best known for his theory on social development of human beings, and for coining the phrase identity crisis.. The theory describes eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood.
Jun 17, · Of current interest to the field are clinical frameworks that foster recovery. The authors offer a psycho-developmental model that parallels Erik Erikson’s theory of human development, and theorize that the process of psychiatric recovery involves a psychic reworking of these fundamental steps.
Erik Erikson () used Freud's work as a starting place to develop a theory about human stage development from birth to death. In contrast to Freud's focus on sexuality, Erikson focused on how peoples' sense of identity develops; how people develop or fail to develop abilities and beliefs.
erikson's psychosocial development theory erik erikson's psychosocial crisis life cycle model - the eight stages of human erik erikson's psychosocial theory overview Erikson's psychosocial theory is widely and highly regarded.
As with any Eriksons' work is as relevant today as when he first outlined. Since every psychoanalytic theory of personality has its strengths and weaknesses, picking a theorist’s most useful ideas to understand human individual attitudes and behaviors might need to be considered in a broader sense to establish whether or not these ideas offer a framework applicable to the majority of people across their lifespan.