Archaic period in Greece Dipylon Vase of the late Geometric period, or the beginning of the Archaic period, c. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabetmodifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Objects with Phoenician writing on them may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century.
Hoplite A hoplite armed with an aspis and a doru. Along with the rise of the city-state evolved a brand new style of warfare and the emergence of the hoplite.
The hoplite was an infantryman, the central element of warfare in Ancient Greece.
Hoplites were the citizen-soldiers of the Ancient Greek City-states. They were primarily armed as spear-men and fought in a phalanx see below. Hoplite armor was extremely expensive for the average citizen, so it was commonly passed down from the soldier's father or relative.
The secondary weapon of a hoplite was the xiphosa short sword used when the soldier's spear was broken or lost while fighting. The origins of the hoplite are obscure, and no small matter of contention amongst historians.
Traditionally, this has been dated to the 8th century BC, and attributed to Sparta; but more recent views suggest a later date, towards the 7th century BC.
Certainly, by approximately BC, as dated by the ' Chigi vase ', the 'hoplite revolution' was complete. More importantly, it permitted the formation of a shield-wall by an army, an impenetrable mass of men and shields.
Men were also equipped with metal greaves and also a breast plate made of bronze, leather, or stiff cloth. Regardless of where it developed, the model for the hoplite army evidently quickly spread throughout Greece. The persuasive qualities of the phalanx were probably its relative simplicity allowing its use by a citizen militialow fatality rate important for small city-statesand relatively low cost enough for each hoplite to provide their own equipment.
The hoplite phalanx[ edit ] Main article: Phalanx Reconstruction of a Hoplite Phalanx formation The ancient Greek city-states developed a military formation called the phalanxwhich were rows of shoulder-to-shoulder hoplites. The Hoplites would lock their shields together, and the first few ranks of soldiers would project their spears out over the first rank of shields.
The Phalanx therefore presented a shield wall and a mass of spear points to the enemy, making frontal assaults much more difficult. It also allowed a higher proportion of the soldiers to be actively engaged in combat at a given time rather than just those in the front rank. The phalanx formed the core of ancient Greek militaries.
When advancing towards an enemy, the phalanx would break into a run that was sufficient to create momentum but not too much as to lose cohesion. The battle would then rely on the valour of the men in the front line, while those in the rear maintained forward pressure on the front ranks with their shields.
When in combat, the whole formation would consistently press forward trying to break the enemy formation; thus, when two phalanx formations engaged, the struggle essentially became a pushing match,  in which, as a rule, the deeper phalanx would almost always win, with few recorded exceptions.
When exactly the phalanx developed is uncertain, but it is thought to have been developed by the Argives in their early clashes with the Spartans.Ἑλλάς. 12th/9th century BC–c. ADc. AD. Athens and Sparta, both powerful Greek city-states, had fought as allies in the Greco-Persian Wars between and B.C.
In the wake of the Persian retreat, however, Athens grew more powerful and tensions rose, escalating into . The Peloponnesian War (– BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.
Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. The division of the ancient kingdom of Israel was: Due to the Persian Wars, the center of Greek philosophical speculation shifted from Ionia to: There existed an almost perfect balance of power between Athens, Sparta, Corinth, and Thebes.
b. The independent temper of Greek political life made unity impossible. Hellenistic sculpture is. The Peloponnesian War: Athens, Sparta, and the Struggle for Greece [Nigel Bagnall] on torosgazete.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The Peloponnesian War, the epic struggle between Athens and Sparta, occupies a vital part in military history because of the enormous military and political changes it inspired.
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About. Both Athens and Sparta hold historic value for Greece and the world. Athens is the capital and the largest city of Greece. It is a center for economic, political, financial and culture life in Greece.