After you have answered the above questions and begun your draft of the body paragraphs, consider what it is that your readers need to know before you begin describing. Should you provide an overview or should you talk about the reasons for writing a description? Remember the age-old advice:
Originally published as 26 Val. For educational use only. The printed edition remains canonical. For citational use please obtain a back issue from William S. The Evolution of a Constitutional Right which may be obtained from amazon. Introduction On this two hundredth anniversary of its adoption, the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, like certain other Rhetorical modes week 3 com 155 of the Bill of Rights, has been subjected to politically-valued, result-oriented interpretation.
While harboring no agenda for state militia powers, advocates of this hypothesis strongly oppose firearms ownership by the general public. The first group was a declaration of rights, in which the right of the people to keep and bear arms appeared.
The second group, consisting of amendments related to the structure of government, included recognition of the power of states to maintain militias. The former became the Bill of Rights, while the latter was defeated. The state power to maintain militias vis-a-vis the federal military power was already treated in the text of the Constitution before the Bill of Rights was proposed.
Article I, Section 8 empowers Congress "to declare War, To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress First, in United States v.
Verdugo-Urquidez,  a Fourth Amendment case, the Court made clear that all law-abiding Americans are protected by the Second Amendment as follows: The Second Amendment protects "the right of the people to keep and bear Arms," and the Ninth and Tenth Amendments provide that certain rights and powers are retained by p.
I, "Congress shall make no law While this textual exegesis is by no means conclusive, it suggests that "the people" protected by the Fourth Amendment, and by the First and Second Amendments, and to whom rights and powers are reserved in the Ninth and Tenth Amendments, refers to a class of persons who are part of a national community or who have otherwise developed sufficient connection with this country to be considered part of that community.
Rather, they designed the Bill of Rights to prohibit our Government from infringing rights and liberties presumed to be pre-existing. In fact, the Court referred to the state power over the militia as being recognized only in "the text of the Constitution, " not in any amendment: Two conflicting themes, developed at the Constitutional Convention and repeated in debates over military policy during the next century, led to a compromise in the text of the Constitution and in later statutory enactments.
On the one hand, there was a widespread fear that a national standing Army posed an intolerable threat to individual liberty and to the sovereignty of the separate States, while, on the other hand, there was a recognition of the danger of relying on inadequately trained soldiers as the primary means of providing for the common defense.
Thus, Congress was authorized both to raise and support a national army and also to organize "the Militia.
The first, passed inprovided that "every able-bodied male citizen between the ages of eighteen and forty-five be enrolled [in the militia] and equip himself with appropriate weaponry The Court referred to "the traditional understanding of the militia as a part-time, nonprofessional fighting force,"  and as "a body of armed citizens trained to military duty, who may be called out in certain cases, but may not be kept on service like standing armies, in time of peace.
In sum, it was clear enough to the Supreme Court in that "the people" in the Second Amendment means individuals generally, as it does in the rest of the Bill of Rights; that the "militia" means the body of armed citizens at large, organized and unorganized; and that the Second Amendment is not relevant to the power of a states to maintain the militia.
This analysis begins with the adoption of the Militia Clause, and the first calls for a bill of rights, in the constitutional convention of It then traces chronologically the ratification struggle in the state conventions and in the writings of Federalists and Antifederalists.
The proposal and adoption of the Bill of Rights in Congress, first by the House and then by the Senate, is scrutinized, along with explanations and criticisms published in the public forum and ratification by the states.
The historical portion of this study ends with a review of enactment of the militia act of by the First Federal Congress. Concluding remarks relate to pre Supreme Court jurisprudence.
The Constitutional Convention of In the Constitutional Convention ofthe issue of the militia was first raised in reaction to a proposal that the national legislature be empowered to p.
Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts observed on June 8 "that the proposed negative would extend to the regulations of the militia--a matter on which the existence of the state might depend. The national legislature, with such a power, may enslave the states.Additionally, each week, a variety of political and/or topical cartoons are reviewed and analyzed by students using rhetoric techniques as seen in.
The Art of Voice. This course is organized by rhetorical modes. Students study a wide variety of American Literature while exploring these rhetorical modes.
Students also study a wide range of. rockstar riots 8‑week competition Rockstar Energy powers the Destiny 2: Forsaken competition series. Play for weekly prizes, earn ranking by game mode, and a chance to win a fly-away experience to the live finals event at Bungie Studios in Washington, USA.
Oct 16, · (Note: Landscape mode recommended if viewing this on mobile device. Picks are made straight up, not against the spread.).
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🎃👻. In the blog last week, we discussed the Genesis account, evolutionary theory and how these can be reconciled with Catholic thought and teaching.
At one level, the genre for the Genesis accounts must be taken into consideration wherein figurative language is sometimes used to confer the sacred truths that God alone created everything out of [ ].
Material Appendix C Rhetorical Modes Matrix Rhetorical modes are methods for effectively communicating through language and writing. Complete the following chart to identify the purpose and structure of the various rhetorical modes used in academic writing.