Henry George and Georgism Henry George 2 September — 29 October was perhaps the most famous advocate of recovering land rents for public purposes.
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access Land Reform And Taxation Essay Sample Reform implies the existence of a defect that something is deformed or malformed and does not suit existing conditions.
Land Reform, refers to the full range of measures that may or should be taken to improve or remedy the defects in the relations among men e. Some efforts began during the American Colonial Period with renewed efforts during the Commonwealth, following independence, during Martial Law and especially following the People Power Revolution in The current law, the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program, was passed following the revolution and recently extended until History Much like Mexico and other Spanish colonies in the Americas, the Spanish settlement in the Philippines revolved around the encomienda system of plantations, known ashaciendas.
As the 19th Century progressed, industrialization and liberalization of trade allowed these encomienda to expand their cash crops, establishing a strong sugar industry in the Philippines on such islands and Panay and Negros. American period Taxation and land reform United States of America took possession of the Philippines following the Spanish-American War in and after putting down the subsequent rebellion in the Philippine-American War.
The Second Philippine Commission, the Taft Commission, viewed economic development as one of its top three goals. This and a downturn in the investment environment discouraged the foreign-owned plantations common in British Malaya, the Dutch East Indies, and French Indochina.
Federal Government faced the problem of much of the private land being owned by the Roman Catholic Church and controlled by Spanish clerics.
The American government—officially secular, hostile to the continued Spanish control of much of the land of the now-American colony, and long hostile to Catholics—negotiated a settlement with the Church over its land.
This act, among other actions, disestablished the Catholic Church as the state religion. The United States government, in an effort to resolve the status of the friars, negotiated with the Vatican.
It refused, however, to withdraw the religious orders from the islands immediately, partly to avoid offending Spain. The land was eventually resold to Filipinos, some of them tenants but the majority of them estate owners.
As a result, an agrarian reform program was initiated by the Commonwealth. However, success of the program was hampered by ongoing clashes between tenants and landowners. An example of these clashes includes one initiated by Benigno Ramos through his Sakdalista movement, which advocated tax reductions, land reforms, the breakup of the large estates or haciendas, and the severing of American ties.
Quezon implemented the Rice Share Tenancy Act of The purpose of this act was to regulate the share-tenancy contracts by establishing minimum standards.
The major flaw of this law was that it could be used only when the majority of municipal councils in a province petitioned for it. Since landowners usually controlled such councils, no province ever asked that the law be applied.
However, contracts were good only for one year. By simply refusing the renew their contract, landlords were able to eject tenants.
As a result, peasant organizations agitated in vain for a law that would make the contract automatically renewable for as long as the tenants fulfilled their obligations.
Inthis Act was amended to get rid of its loophole, but the landlords made its application relative and not absolute. Consequently, it was never carried out in spite of its good intentions.
In fact, bythousands of peasants in Central Luzon were being threatened with wholesale eviction. By the early s, thousands of tenants in Central Luzon were ejected from their farmlands and the rural conflict was more acute than ever.
Therefore, during the Commonwealth period, agrarian problems persisted. This motivated the government to incorporate a cardinal principle of social justice in the Constitution.
Dictated by the social justice program of the government, the expropriation of landed estates and other landholdings commenced. At the outbreak of the Second World War, major settlement areas containing more than 65, hectares were already established.
Independence When the Philippines gained its independence inmuch of the land was held by a small group of wealthy landowners. There was much pressure on the democratically elected government to redistribute the land. At the same time, many of the democratically elected office holders were landowners themselves or came from land-owning families.
However problems of land tenure continued. In fact these became worse in certain areas. Among the remedial measures enacted was Republic Act No. It was passed to resolve the ongoing peasant unrest in Central Luzon.Land Reform and Taxation in Estonia Attiat Otto The introduction of a market-oriented economic policy in Estonia after independence in set the stage for a plethora of reforms to restore property rights and establish a price system for goods, labor, capital and land.
- ECON - Basic Micro-Economics With Taxation and Land Reform Health Economics With Land Reform and Taxation Syllabus in Basic Economics, Taxation, and Land Reform4/4(15).
Syllabus in Basic Economics, Taxation, and Land Reform - Free download as PDF File .pdf) or read online for free. This course presents a general background of economics, the interaction of its various elements and its effect in general to people’s lives.
Specifically, it provides an introduction to economics and economic concepts in theory, 4/4(8). Land Reform And Taxation Essay Sample Reform implies the existence of a defect that something is deformed or malformed and does not suit existing conditions.
Land Reform, refers to the full range of measures that may or should be taken to improve or remedy the defects in the relations among men (e.g., between the tiller and the owner of land. he Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) was a land reform law mandated by Republic Act No.
the tax is 20% for those engaged in trade or business and 25% for the others. Capital gains on sale of real property are taxed at 6% of gross selling price or fair market value.
of distribution of land to the landless tillers under CARP, the land reform, however, was only applied to rice lands. coverage of Agrarian Reform under different Acts, lands covered by CARP, and different kinds of tenants is discussed.