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Completely new product that may create a new market. Newness of product to the firm Low: Existing type of product within an existing product line. New product within existing product line. New product and a new product line.
Complexity of technology The survey of project management literature provided an important aspect that well suited the classification of the startup context. Their original trichotomy has been modified to suit the Process Industry startup context better: Only one process unit operation.
A process system including a number of unit operations, High: A super-system of process systems large production plant. Size of installation or process plant The size of the process installation could also influence the selection of the most appropriate organizational solution.
A small installation may thus only require a more ad hoc organization compared to a startup of a very large production plant. Nevertheless, even small startups integrated in a very large production environment may cause serious problems if not prepared and executed well, as has been pointed out in the previous presentation.
The following classification is only tentative, and each firm should develop its own scale. For each new installation there may be some project specific aspects that ought to be considered in the selection of a startup organization. Such determinant s can naturally be included as well.
Profiling the startup context In Table 1 the selected potential determinants have been put together and used in a characterization of the startup context. The importance of each determinant can thus first of all be estimated for each project and afterwards the position of the project on each determinant can be made.
The results from a profiling of the startup context and the analysis of the contextual situation bring us further to the issue of how startups are carried out; a processual perspective related to a startup work process.
It is often claimed that carefully crafted and continually improved innovation work processes, like a product development work process, are useful tools not only for improved efficiency but also for improved organizational learning Cooper, In the framework of such work processes, technology transfer has long been recognised as a weak area Holden and Konishi,Leonard-Barton and Sinha,Levin, This is a noteworthy fact since successful startups in many instances often rely on efficient technology transfers.
A review of late publications in the area of project management literature indicates, however, that focus nowadays is more on the issue of reduction in project cycle time Hastak et al. For further reading about work processes see for example Hammer,Malone et al.
It has already been pointed out by Leitch a that an integrated work process and upfront planning for the startup are recommended actions.
Innovation in the Process Industries, be it product or process innovation, will in its final stage often involve modifications of existing production equipment, new process installations or even the erection of a complete new production plant.
The product development work process starts with ideation and development and finishes with the launch of the product on the market outside the company Cooper, In a similar vein, the process development work process also starts with ideation and development and finishes with the startup of the new process technology, but then inside the company, see Figure 2.
A startup of new process technology in a production plant environment can thus be looked upon as an analogy to a product launch on the market in product innovation. This has been the selected perspective for the development of this conceptual framework for the startup and the delineation of alternative organizational models.
To initially clarify and operationally define the concepts used in this article, startup will be referred to both as the startup point of time and the startup space of time, see Figure 3.
Startup point of time is here defined as the time when pre-commissioning without material is complete and commissioning with material, often on a shift basis, begins.
Startup space of time, on the other hand, is defined as the time frame from start of pre-commissioning until the new technology production plant has been fine-tuned and tested on completion. Naturally, the startup space of time should always be preceded by pre-startup preparations and followed up by post-startup improvements.
In Figure 3, the overall main phases of a startup work process from pre-commissioning to steady-state operation are outlined in a rather simplified manner and in a time perspective. The three sub-phases included in the startup work process are 1 commissioning without material; pre-commissioning, 2 commissioning with material, and 3 final adjustments and fine tuning of the process and test on completion.
Only a small part of an installation is thus illustrated in the figure: The inclined lines in the figures symbolize that pre-commissioning, commissioning and even startup often constitute a very much overlapping exercise when different parts of a larger installation are successively brought on stream.Individual Case Analysis Paper CASE: When a New Manager Stumbles, Who’s at Fault?
(Please see the Individual Case Analysis attached below) This assignment is an opportunity for you to demonstrate your understanding of the class material and your ability to effectively apply that material by providing a high quality analysis of the .
When a new manager stumbles, who's at fault? Harvard Business Review, Mar/Apr96, Vol. 74 Issue 2, p22, 15p, 9c. Everything was fine until Paul MacKinley, my manager at the Minneapolis, Minnesota, branch of Bulwark Securities, waved me down in the parking torosgazete.com was June case:When a New Manager Stumbles, Who’s at Fault?
Recommendations Training/ Coaching Communication Team A PengdaDuoBerguzarUlkar Rafferty is not prepared for the new position. In the world of business, there are two types of people, individual contributor and manager. Each has its strength and weaknesses. In the HBR Case Study titled When a New Manager Stumbles, Who’s at Fault?
By Gordon Adler is a great example to observe first-time manager and the individual contributor. The Apprentice 3 is the third season of The torosgazete.com premiered January 20, on torosgazete.com was the last season to land in the Top 20 Nielsen ratings, ranking at #15, with an average of .
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